1. McCance, Kathryn L. RN, PhD
  2. Jones, Robert E. MD


The incidence of breast cancer may be running parallel to the high insulin levels that occur with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Estrogens are known to increase the risk of breast cancer, and there is increasing evidence for interactions between estrogen and intracellular growth factor signaling pathways. This article includes recommendations to lower bioavailable estrogen and insulin through lifestyle changes.