Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


instrument, knowledge, nursing, osteoporosis, research



  1. Ailinger, Rita L.
  2. Lasus, Howard
  3. Braun, Mary Ann


Background: Few instruments exist that measure knowledge of osteoporosis, a health risk for 28 million Americans. The original Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz (FOOQ), which was theoretically informed by Orem's (1995) Self-Care Theory, was published in 1998. In 2000, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a consensus conference on osteoporosis in which previous knowledge was modified based on current science.


Objectives: The goal was to update the original instrument based on the latest scientific evidence and to determine its psychometric properties.


Method: The quiz content was validated by osteoporosis experts and is theoretically informed by Orem's (2001) Self-Care Theory. An iterative process was used to design an instrument with an acceptable reading level. Reliability, item discrimination, and item difficulty were assessed in a convenience sample of 256 participants.


Results: The revised quiz, content-based on the 2000 NIH osteoporosis consensus conference, includes 20 questions. The quiz has a content validity index of .87, an internal consistency reliability of .76 and a 6th grade reading level. Item difficulty and item discrimination are also reported.


Conclusions: The revised version of the FOOQ provides a valid, reliable, and theoretically informed instrument with acceptable psychometric properties.


Osteoporosis is a health risk for 28 million Americans. One of every two women in the United States will suffer an osteoporosis-related fracture in her lifetime. Osteoporosis accounts for 1.5 million fractures a year and consumes $15 billion annually in healthcare costs (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases [NIAMS], 2000).


Bone strength is a result of bone quality and bone density. Bone strength is compromised in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a silent disease and is usually undetected until densitometry reveals its presence or a fracture occurs (NIAMS, 2000). Although 80% of osteoporosis occurs in women, it can also occur in men. Since osteoporosis is usually preventable, people need to have the correct information for promoting bone strength and reducing their risk for osteoporosis.


The first Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz (FOOQ) was published in 1998 (Ailinger, Harper & Lasus, 1998). Since publication, the investigators have received more than 50 requests to use the instrument in research studies and in clinical practice. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a consensus conference in 2000 on osteoporosis in which the expert panel revised some of their previous recommendations. The objectives of this study were to update the FOOQ to keep pace with the latest scientific evidence and to determine the psychometric properties of the revised instrument in a descriptive study.