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  1. Odhner, Margaret RN, BSN, CCRN
  2. Wegman, Deborah RN, BSN
  3. Freeland, Nancy RN, MS, CCRN
  4. Steinmetz, Ann RN, BSN
  5. Ingersoll, Gail L. EdD, RN, FAAN


The accurate assessment of pain in nonverbal patients is difficult, with nurses often relying on a variety of methods to determine medication impact. Much of the evidence to date suggests that commonly used indicators of pain may not effectively measure the true extent of distress in patients unable to verbalize their level of discomfort. A recent pilot study of an existing and newly developed pain assessment scale reinforces this concern.