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  1. Welton, John M. PhD, RN, FAAN
  2. Kleiner, Catherine PhD, RN
  3. Valdez, Carolyn MS
  4. Richardson, Sara BSN, RN
  5. Boyle, Kathy PhD, RN, NEA-BC
  6. Lucas, Eric BA


OBJECTIVE: This study tests the feasibility of using a large (big) clinical data set to test the ability to extract time-referenced data related to medication administration to identify late doses and as-needed (PRN) administration patterns by RNs in an inpatient setting.


METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis of a set of data using bar-code medication administration time stamps (n = 3043812) for 50883 patients admitted to a single, urban, 525-bed hospital in 11 inpatient units by 714 nurses between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015.


RESULTS: The large majority of scheduled medications (43.3%) were administered between 9 to 10 AM and 9 to 10 PM accounting for the most amount of delayed doses. On average, patients received 8.9 medications per day, and nurses administered 19.7 medications per shift. The average full-time nurse administered 3414 medications per year.


CONCLUSIONS: The findings support use of time-referenced data to identify clinical processes and performance in administering scheduled and PRN medications.