Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


  1. Bujold, Maude MSc(A), RN
  2. Feeley, Nancy PhD, RN
  3. Axelin, Anna PhD, RN
  4. Cinquino, Claudia BScN, RN, IBCLC


Background: Human milk has multiple benefits for human health; however, rates of infants receiving human milk at discharge in Canadian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are far below recommendations of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative supported by the Canadian Pediatric Association. Mothers of infants requiring NICU care usually need to express their milk, especially mothers of premature infants, since for some time their infant is unable to feed directly at the breast. Expressing human milk for an extended period can be challenging for mothers.


Purpose: To document maternal experiences expressing human milk for their infant in the NICU as a closeness or separation experience, and to discover what factors gave rise to these perceptions.


Methods: In this descriptive qualitative cross-sectional study, 15 mothers whose infants were hospitalized in a level III NICU and who were expressing human milk audio recorded their thoughts and feelings with a smartphone application for 48 hours while they were expressing milk. A thematic content analysis was used to analyze data.


Findings: Expressing human milk for their hospitalized infant was a difficult experience for all mothers, and most described both closeness and separation feelings while expressing milk. Their feelings fluctuated depending on their coping mechanisms, perceived challenges, as well as their location and environment. Mothers were all pursuing their goal of continued milk expression with various levels of motivation.


Implications for Practice: NICUs should adopt a family-centered approach to care whereby mothers' care needs related to milk expression are addressed. Nurses can ask open-ended questions to explore how mothers are coping, and they can assist mothers to find effective coping strategies to minimize the challenges related to milk expression to promote mother-infant closeness.


Implications for Research: The impact of environment and location on mothers with hospitalized infants should be explored, as unit designs could be altered to foster closeness.