dyspnea, education, end-of-life, RDOS



  1. Birkholz, Lorri DNP, RN, NE-BC
  2. Haney, Tina DNP, CNS, RN


Dyspnea is experienced by 15% to 70% of patients at end of life. Because of cognitive changes before death, patients may be unable to self-report dyspnea, which requires nurses to accurately assess and initiate symptom management. This study compared practicing nurses' experiential practice in the assessment and management of dyspnea in patients unable to self-report to practice using of the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale (RDOS). This pre-experimental pretest/posttest study evaluated nurse outcomes following a structured educational program aimed at preparing them to use the RDOS. Nurses (n = 39) who provide end-of-life care were recruited for the study. After receiving the educational program, there was not a significant difference in the nurse's ability to assess the patient's overall level of perceived comfort and determine a differential diagnosis. There was, however, improvement in the nurse's ability to correctly determine a patient's level of dyspnea (P = .021) and also in their ability to select appropriate treatment options. This study demonstrates applicability of the RDOS to the end-of-life population replacing experiential practice with an evidence-based tool for the assessment and treatment of dyspnea in patients who cannot self-report.