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  1. Aloush, Sami M. PhD, MSN, RN
  2. Abdelkader, Fadia A. PhD
  3. Al-Sayaghi, Khaled PhD
  4. Tawalbeh, Loai I. PhD
  5. Suliman, Mohammad PhD
  6. Al Bashtawy, Mohammed PhD
  7. Shaban, Insaf PhD


This study was a self-reported cross-sectional survey that investigated nurses' and hospitals' compliance with ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention guidelines and the barriers and factors that affect their level of compliance. A questionnaire was completed by 471 intensive care unit nurses from 16 medical centers in 3 Middle Eastern countries: Jordan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. The results show that both nurses and hospitals have insufficient compliance. Previous education, experience, and academic degree were all found to affect nurses' compliance.