attachment, end-of-life care, palliative care, spiritual coping



  1. Kunsmann-Leutiger, Elke BA
  2. Loetz, Cecile PhD
  3. Frick, Eckhard MD, MA
  4. Petersen, Yvonne MD
  5. Muller, Jakob Johann PhD


Research has shown that spiritual coping is essential for palliative care patients in enhancing quality of life and that attachment patterns affect the emotional well-being of the terminally ill. This is the first study evaluating how spiritual coping and attachment are associated in palliative care patients. Four different attachment patterns-secure, dismissive, preoccupied, and unresolved-were examined, as well as how they relate to three different spiritual coping strategies-search, trust, and reflection. In a cross-sectional, correlative design, 80 patients were recruited from German palliative care wards and hospices. Attachment patterns were determined using the Adult Attachment Projective System and spiritual coping strategies by SpREUK questionnaire, measuring spiritual and religious attitudes in dealing with illness. The results indicate that there is an association between attachment style and spiritual coping. Preoccupied patients had the lowest score in spiritual coping, with the strategy "reflection" being significantly lowest (t = 2.389, P = .019). Securely and dismissively attached patients presented equally high scores, raising the question of what mechanisms underlie spiritual coping. Furthermore, the unresolved group scored high in spiritual coping. Heightening awareness for ways in which attachment styles influence spiritual coping can contribute significantly to the quality of life in terminally ill patients, enabling health care professionals to tailor to individual needs in this vulnerable stage of life.