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  1. Ahmadi, Mohamad MSN
  2. Bagheri-Saweh, Mohammad Iraj MSN
  3. Nouri, Bijan PhD
  4. Mohamadamini, Omid MSN
  5. Valiee, Sina PhD


The article reports results of an educational program designed to modify negative attitudes of intensive care nurses regarding the use of physical restraints. Findings revealed that increased knowledge about appropriate utilization of various types of restraints positively impacted perceptions, attitudes, and patient care practices. Authors also explore restraint use in several countries and identify variations in use of restraining methods.