nursing education, nursing students, psychological safety, simulation training



  1. Kang, Sook Jung PhD, FNP-C
  2. Min, Hae Young PhD, RN


Background: Although nursing students enjoy and learn from simulation practice, some experience negative feelings that may hamper their learning outcomes.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand nursing students' perceptions of psychological safety in simulation practice to provide a foundation for a safe and effective simulation learning environment.


Methods: A convenient sample of 15 undergraduate nursing students was included in this study. Focus group interviews and inductive content analysis were used for this study.


Results: Four themes extracted from the study included feeling unready, anxious about having students' mistakes exposed, worry about damaging teamwork, and fear of evaluation.


Conclusions: Findings indicated that providing prebriefing and considering students' level of simulation experience in sharing their recorded video may help ensure a psychologically safe environment. An instrument measuring psychological safety and evidence-based guidelines to ensure a safe learning environment needs to be developed.