Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


Affirming, cultural humility, inclusive, LGBT, safe spaces



  1. Kuzma, Elizabeth K. DNP, FNP-BC (Clinical Assistant Professor)
  2. Pardee, Michelle DNP, FNP-BC (Clinical Assistant Professor)
  3. Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S. PhD, FNP-BC (Clinical Assistant Professor)


Background and purpose: This article provides foundational information about 1) the significant health disparities LGBT individuals face, which are associated with persistent discrimination, oppression, and stigmatization in both societal and healthcare settings; and 2) how cultural humility can help nurses to create safe spaces and provide optimal care for all patients.


Methods: CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, and GoogleScholar databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical literature regarding LGBT health, health disparities, barriers to accessing care, unconscious bias, cultural humility, and creating safe spaces to better meet the healthcare needs of the LGBT population.


Conclusions: LGBT patients' health needs are not being adequately met in many healthcare settings due to inadequate education and preparation of healthcare providers, including nurses. Lack of access to safe, appropriate, and affirming healthcare services increases the risk of poor health and persistent health disparities.


Implications for practice: As the largest professional healthcare workforce, nurses can have a significant role in reducing the health disparities LGBT patients face. When armed with the tools to care for LGBT patients with cultural humility, nurses can lead clinical change within their institutions to create safe, accepting, affirming, inclusive, and welcoming environments for all patients.