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  1. Bahonar, Elahe MScN
  2. Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh PhD
  3. Haghani, Hamid PhD


Consciousness disturbances are the most common posttraumatic complications. The purpose of this study was to compare the single and combined effects of nature sounds and foot sole reflexology massage on level of consciousness in traumatic comatose patients. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 teaching hospitals in an urban area of Iran. Samples were 120 traumatic comatose patients who were randomly assigned into control, nature sounds, foot reflexology massage, and nature sounds plus foot sole reflexology massage groups. Patients in all groups received routine care. Interventions were performed twice a day for 2 weeks, each time for 30 minutes. The patients' level of consciousness was assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale before, 1 week, and 2 weeks after the intervention. The groups had no significant differences in the mean scores of the consciousness level before, 1 week after, and the last day of the intervention. Also, there was a significant difference in the number of patients who regained full consciousness (P = .001) in the intervention groups compared with the control group. Significant differences in the number of days of consciousness were reported in at least one of the groups compared with other groups (P = .001). This difference was significant in the control group compared with the foot reflexology massage group (P = .032), as well as the nature sounds plus foot sole reflexology massage group (P = .001). Single or combined interventions can increase the level of consciousness in comatose patients and reduce the duration of coma.