1. Ortolano, Girolamo A. PhD
  2. Russell, Rosalind L. PhD
  3. Angelbeck, Judy A. PhD
  4. Schaffer, Jeffrey DVM
  5. Wenz, Barry MD


Filters often are viewed as screens with openings smaller than the particles intended to be removed by a process technically known as direct interception. However, filter manufacturing embraces far more advanced technological approaches, with an evolution toward selective removal of cells or soluble constituents from complex physiologic solutions. An appreciation of filtration development makes it easy to understand how differently manufactured filters with the same claims may not perform identically. This article focuses on the filtration of intravenous solutions and point-of-use hospital water.