advance directive, hematology, Korean, malignancy



  1. Lee, Mee Ok MSN, RN
  2. Park, Jinny PhD, MD
  3. Park, Eun Young PhD, RN, KONP
  4. Kim, Youngji PhD, RN
  5. Bang, Eunjoo PhD, RN
  6. Heo, Seongkum PhD, RN
  7. Kim, JinShil PhD, RN


The objective of this pilot study was to examine factors associated with the completion of advance directives (ADs) among patients with hematologic disorders in Korea. Using a descriptive design, patients with largely hematologic malignancies completed the questionnaires, including the Korean-Advance Directive (K-AD) model, which pertains to values, treatment wishes, and proxy appointment. Of 45 patients (aged 48.7 +/- 10.7 years, 51.1% men), two-thirds had leukemia (40.0%) and lymphoma (26.7%). "Dying comfortably" was the most frequently selected value (n = 20). Regarding treatment wishes, hospice care was the most desired type (n = 22), whereas aggressive treatments, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, were less preferred (n = 3). The patient's spouse was most frequently appointed as a proxy (n = 27). Patients who completed all the 3 components of the K-AD model (51.1%) were less depressed (t = -2.31; P = .028) and more likely to perceive the benefits of the K-AD model (t = 2.07; P = .045), compared with the noncompleters (48.9%). Further, being male (odds ratio [OR], 6.42; P = .031), having higher scores on depressive symptoms (OR, 1.28; P = .016), and perceived barriers (OR, 1.08; P = .040) were associated with lower tendency to complete the K-AD model. These findings support the need for earlier introduction of ADs in hematologic disorders, with consideration of modifiable factors such as depression or barriers to end-of-life care decisions.