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  1. Anderson, Albert D. Jr PhD, RN, NE-BC
  2. Floegel, Theresa A. PhD, RN
  3. Hofler, Linda PhD, RN, FACHE, NEA-BC
  4. Swanson, Melvin PhD


OBJECTIVE: This study uses Leader-Member Exchange theory to explore the associations between contact frequency (CF) of nurse leaders and their team members, leader-member relationship, and patient safety culture.


BACKGROUND: Leader-member relationships are an important part of patient safety culture development. The behaviors of leaders to achieve these relationships are unknown. This study explores CF as a leader behavior to improve patient safety culture.


METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of bedside nurses (N = 746) from an 8-hospital system.


RESULTS: A significant association was found between relationship strength and patient safety culture; CF's effect on relationship and patient safety culture was demonstrated.


CONCLUSION: Contact frequency may support relationships between leaders and members and improve patient safety culture on nursing units. Future studies should explore factors that could be enhancing and limiting CF.