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fentanyl, methamphetamine, opioids, overdose, pharmacotherapy, polysubstances use



  1. Fogger, Susanne A. DNP, PMHNP-BC, CARN-AP, FAANP


Background: The ongoing drug crisis in the United States continues to be headlined with numbers of deaths related to opioid overdose. Less known to the public and health care providers is the rise in methamphetamine use, often in conjunction with opioids or adulterated with fentanyl. An old practice with a new twist is the use of methamphetamine in conjunction with an opioid such as heroin.


Purpose: Although there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications to treat individuals with stimulant use disorders, a review of available studies suggests a few promising medications that may be helpful for patients in early recovery from methamphetamine.


Outcome: Some individuals are more likely to respond to medications such as long-acting naltrexone, bupropion, and mirtazapine, who have light-to-moderate use of methamphetamine. Naloxone kits should be considered for all patients who are actively using stimulants because of a high potential of adulterated methamphetamine.