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  1. Price, Sheri L. PhD, RN
  2. Vine, Jocelyn CHE, MHS, RN
  3. Gurnham, Mary Ellen MScN, RN
  4. Paynter, Martha MSc, RN
  5. Leiter, Michael PhD, RN


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine 1st-line managers' (FLMs') experiences in managing the workplace social environment (WSE).


BACKGROUND: FLMs are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of supportive WSE essential for effective teamwork. Poorly managed WSE and dysfunctional teams hold negative implications for patients, teams, and organizations.


METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study, using content analysis of individual and focus group interviews with FLMs and directors.


RESULTS: FLMs play a critical role in the management of the WSE; however, the task is fraught with constraints and challenges including competing demands, lack of support, and insufficient training. Findings explicate how competing demands and communication challenges impede the successful management of the WSE.


CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of a healthy WSE to patient, professional, and organizational outcomes, FLMs need support, training, and resources to assist them in managing the social environment alongside other competing priorities.