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adherence, cardiac rehabilitation, health information technology



  1. Kebapci, Ayda RN, PhD
  2. Ozkaynak, Mustafa PhD
  3. Lareau, Suzanne C. RN, MS, FAAN, ATSF


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eHealth-based interventions on patient adherence to components of cardiac rehabilitation (CR).


Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guided this review. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published from January 1996 to December 2017. All studies were included in which eHealth-based components of CR and its effects on patient adherence were measured. Because this review included a heterogeneous group of study designs, the authors qualitatively described the effect of eHealth on adherence into a narrative approach.


Results: A total of 1520 studies were identified, with 1415 excluded after screening. Of the remaining 105 studies, 90 were excluded after full text assessment, leaving 15 studies for analysis. Most (11) of the 15 studies reported on medication adherence. Other studies focused on adherence to diet, physical activity, vital signs, weight, step counts, smoking, and fluid restriction. The type of eHealth used also varied, ranging from telemonitoring and web-based applications to telephone calls. Of the 15 studies, 7 reported significant improvements with eHealth-based components of CR on adherence.


Discussion and Conclusion: This review summarizes the effects of eHealth on components of CR and revealed variations in measurement and evaluation methods. The telemonitoring and web-based applications for self-care behaviors were most effective in promoting adherence. The measurement of adherence should be based on an explicit definition of adherence and should be measured with validated scales tested in the CR population.