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craving for cigarettes, HIV, smoking cessation



  1. Kim, Sun S.
  2. Cooley, Mary E.
  3. Lee, Sang A
  4. DeMarco, Rosanna F.


Background: This study examined whether baseline negative emotional states (depression and anxiety) would predict craving for cigarettes and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms in early abstinence and whether those emotional states and withdrawal symptoms would predict failure in quitting smoking at 3 months postquit among U.S. women living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Method: The study is a secondary analysis of data from two smoking cessation studies of women living with HIV. Craving for cigarettes and other withdrawal symptoms were assessed weekly with a total of 229 observations during the first 4 weeks following quit day. Descriptive statistics were used to examine baseline characteristics of the participants. A random growth curve model was used to estimate between-person differences in a within-person trend of changes in the withdrawal symptoms. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of short-term smoking abstinence.


Results: Baseline anxiety was a predictor of postquit nicotine withdrawal symptoms but baseline depression was not. Neither baseline anxiety nor depression predicted postquit craving for cigarettes. Participants who received an HIV-tailored smoking cessation intervention showed a greater decline in craving symptom than those who received an attention-controlled intervention. HIV-tailored intervention and less craving predicted smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up.


Discussion: Compared to an attention-controlled intervention, an HIV-tailored intervention effectively decreased craving for cigarette smoking after quitting-which effectively increased the rate of short-term smoking abstinence in women living with HIV.