Acute kidney injury, Long-term outcomes, Sepsis



  1. Harris, Pamela L. BSN, RN
  2. Umberger, Reba A. PhD, RN, CCRN-K


Background: Despite advances in medical technologies and intervention occurrences, acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence continues to rise. Early interventions after sepsis are essential to prevent AKI and its long-term consequences. Acute kidney injury is the leading cause of organ failure in sepsis; therefore, more research is needed on its long-term consequences and progression to kidney injury.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the state of the science on long-term renal outcomes after sepsis-induced AKI and long-term renal consequences.


Methods: We identified research articles from PubMed and CINAHL databases using relevant key words for sepsis-induced AKI within 5 years delimited to full-text articles in English.


Results: Among 1280 abstracts identified, we ultimately analyzed 12 full-text articles, identifying four common themes in the literature: (1) AKI determination criteria, (2) severity/prognosis-related factors, (3) time frame for long-term outcome measures, and (4) chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal related exclusions. Researchers primarily used KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines to define AKI. All of these studies excluded patients with CKD. The range of time for long-term renal outcomes was 28 days to 3 years, with the majority being 1 year. Renal outcomes ranged from recovery to renal replacement therapy to death.


Conclusions: To better understand the long-term renal outcomes after sepsis-induced AKI, more consistent measures are needed across all studies regarding the time frame and specific renal outcomes. Because all of these articles excluded patients with CKD, a gap exists on long-term renal outcome in acute on CKD.