1. Mitchell, Ann M. PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FIAAN, FAAN

Article Content

It is my pleasure to introduce this issue of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. In this issue, articles address a number of important topics in the addictions field, including alcohol use, internet and social network service (SNS) addiction, and tobacco use and tobacco treatment interventions.


We begin with a Guest Editorial, "Caring for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder in The Midst of a Pandemic: A Call to Action for All Nurses," by Drs. Mahmoud, Germack, and Kameg. They remind us that, like the COVID-19 pandemic, the opioid epidemic also impacts persons all over the globe, and they conclude that the responsibility for providing care to patients with an opioid use disorder should be a shared one involving all nurses regardless of setting or specialty.


Next, we have a Letter the Editor by Mr. Mathew Tierney related to the October/December 2019 volume of the Journal of Addictions Nursing's article by Dr. Tonja M. Padgett titled "The Advantages and Disadvantages of Medication-Assisted Treatment in Primary Care Offices." Dr. Padgett also supplies a response to the letter.


Next, in the article entitled "The Care of Patients with Alcohol Intoxication in the Emergency Department of a Central Hospital: Nurses' Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes," Dr. Tina Hakala and colleagues' aim was to describe nurses' skills, knowledge of care, and attitudes toward the care of patients with alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. On the basis of the interviewees' descriptions, five main categories were formed: the skills to discuss the use of alcohol on arrival, safety skills, teamwork skills, the skills to organize follow-up care, and nurses' attitudes and ethics in patients' care.


Dr. Gokce Demir and associates' study's aim was to determine daytime sleepiness in university students and its relationship with internet addiction, in "Daytime Sleepiness in University Students and Internet Addiction as the Determinant." A descriptive cross-sectional design was used, and the authors found that an increase on their internet addiction score raised the risk of daytime sleepiness.


Kristin Keller, a student, and her colleague Dr. Lach address "Nurse Counseling as Part of a Multicomponent Tobacco Treatment Intervention: An Integrative Review" in our continuing education article. Although tobacco use is widely recognized as a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, tobacco treatment remains challenging. Their integrative review synthesizes research findings regarding multicomponent tobacco treatment interventions combining nurse counseling and nicotine replacement therapy. They found that nurse counseling is an effective intervention when combined with nicotine replacement therapy that can provide useful guidance regarding the designing and implementation of effective tobacco treatment interventions that incorporate various components.


"Factors Affecting Problem Drinking among Korean Adolescent Drinkers Based on Ecological Model," by Drs. Mi Young Kim and Mi-Kyoung Cho, identifies factors affecting problem drinking by adolescents in Korea. Their survey involved 68,043 adolescents who participated in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The amount of drinking, method of purchasing alcohol, and ease of buying alcohol were the most influential variables predicting problem drinking by adolescents in Korea.


Dr. Claudio Lucchiari and his colleagues examine the "Psychological and Behavioral Correlates of Readiness to Stop Smoking." Evidence suggests that the motivation to give up smoking is a basic predictor of a tobacco cessation attempt. Their objective was to identify psychocognitive and lifestyle patterns that could characterize people who smoke with different motivations to stop smoking. Their results suggest that smokers' behaviors vary as a function of psychocognitive variables; however, lifestyle does not seem to modulate the motivation to quit smoking.


In the article "Analysis of Factors Related to Social Network Service Addiction among Korean High School Students," Dr. Jae-Woo Oh and colleagues employed a descriptive survey to determine the effects of excessive SNS usage. Measures of SNS addiction, SNS fatigue, anxiety, and school life adjustment were examined. SNS addiction increased as students became more dissatisfied with school life, used SNS for a longer period, and had increased access to SNS than their counterparts. It is necessary to develop intervention programs for vulnerable groups and promote early screening for SNS addiction.


Ms. Elizabeth Scala and colleagues characterize the effects of an 8-hour educational workshop on attitudes toward patients with substance use disorder (SUD) among nurses from an urban inpatient psychiatric hospital in "Nursing Attitudes Toward Patients with Substance Use Disorders: A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of an Educational Workshop." Negative healthcare provider attitudes toward patients with SUD may adversely impact quality of care and treatment outcomes. Positive attitudes significantly increased at posttest and were sustained at 30-day follow-up, whereas motivation and task-specific self-esteem did not significantly change at posttest. They conclude that an educational workshop may improve nurse attitudes toward patients with SUD and suggest using a similar program with other healthcare professionals.


Dr. Changwei Li and associates examine "Smoking and Cognitive Function among Middle-Aged Adults in China: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Base and Baseline Survey." Smoking is prevalent among people in China, and in this study, they examined the association between smoking and cognitive function in a representative sample of adults aged 45 years and older in China. The study participants were, on average, 60 years old. The prevalence of former and current smoking in this population was 8.4% and 28.8%, respectively. This study identified that, among middle-aged and older Chinese adults, former smokers had the highest cognitive function, especially attention and orientation, followed by never-smokers and current smokers. When screening for cognition impairment among Chinese middle-aged and older Chinese adults, they should be encouraged to quit smoking.


In the article "Prevalence and Epidemiological Profile of Brazilian Smokers in the Psychiatric Population and General Population Accessing Primary Health," Dr. Renata Marques de Oliveira and colleagues estimate the prevalence of smokers living in Brazil who use outpatient and hospital psychiatric services and who use outpatient services in primary health care. The prevalence of smokers was greater in the psychiatric population than among the primary health care population, and the factors associated with current smoking were age, religion, psychiatric diagnosis, and use of alcohol/illicit substances.


Next, we welcome Suzanne Kinkle, the new Associate Editor for the JAN Peer Assistance Column. In this issue, Meghan Caroline McGauley discusses "Creating Parity in Standards of Care between Physicians and Nurses: The Montana Professional Assistance Program." This article details the operational processes that the Montana Professional Assistance Program, Inc., follows under best practice guidelines and that are outlined in the newly published Federation of State Physician Health Programs 2019 Guidelines.


In Perspectives, Dr. Palumbo and associates present "What You Need to Know: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy as a Path to Recovery for Patients with SUD." Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is a Level A trauma treatment endorsed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the World Health Organization as an evidence-based approach in treating those who experience trauma and its related symptoms. Adding eye movement desensitization and reprocessing to treatment-as-usual approaches can allow for adaptive information processing to take place while reprocessing traumatic memories that may trigger maladaptive coping strategies such as overuse and misuse of substances.


It is with great sadness that we acknowledge the passing of Becky Eisenhut, former Editor of the Journal's Peer Assistance column. Becky served for over 8 years as Editor before retiring in 2019. Her enthusiasm and dedication to excellence were hallmarks during her tenure, and subscribers often shared positive comments on the timeliness, relevance, and quality of her contributions.


Finally, as these turbulent times continue, let us remember to advocate for all those with mental health and substance use issues and the healthcare professionals who care for them during the two pandemics occurring today. As always[horizontal ellipsis]stay home, stay safe, and stay healthy.