community-level health, end of life, health theory, nursing, palliative



  1. Cross, Lisa A. MSN, RN, CNE, CRRN, CHPN


The purpose of this integrative review was to appraise the qualitative and quantitative literature for community-level health behavior theory application to palliative care nursing to identify their use and future research implications. To date, there has not been an integrative review of the nursing studies that have used community-level health behavior theory to guide palliative care nursing research. Despite the availability of high-quality care, there continues to be underuse of resources. An integrative review on community-level theory application may provide a more holistic understanding of previous interventions to frame future interventions and research needs. The review was guided by the 5-step framework of Whittemore and Knafl. Relevant literature was searched and appraised. Seven different community-level health behavior theories were found with applications to palliative care nursing, and 16 studies using these theories were identified for discussion. Community-Based Participatory Research was the most used theory. Community-level health behavior theories such as Community-Based Participatory Research have helped build partnerships and activate community resources such as capacity, engagement, and diversity through culturally sensitive training interventions. Further research using these theories in palliative care nursing can realize positive outcomes, particularly in low-income rural areas.