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  1. Villgran, Vipin MD
  2. Gordon, Ayla MD
  3. Malik, Khalid MD
  4. Cheema, Tariq MD, FCCP, MMM


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is characterized by airflow obstruction, causing respiratory symptoms. There are treatments available for COPD; however, COPD has significant extrapulmonary effects, including well-recognized ones as cardiovascular disease and often underdiagnosed ones as osteoporosis. It is imperative to be aware of these comorbidities to optimize COPD patient care.