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Gender, Race, Risk Factors, Heart failure



  1. Hussey, Leslie C. PhD, RN
  2. Hardin, Sonya PhD, RN, CCRN


Heart failure (HF) affects almost 4.8 million Americans, occurring in men and women of all races. Half of those with HF are women; of the African Amercian population, almost 3% are affected by HF. Although recent HF research has focused on women and minorities, information is still needed regarding differences by race and gender. The purpose of this study was to compare risk factors and physiologic differences by race (African American and Caucasian) and gender that exist in those with HF.