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  1. Osakwe, Zainab Toteh PhD, MSN
  2. Arora, Bhavleen K. MS
  3. Peterson, Mandi-Leigh MA
  4. Obioha, Chinedu U. MS
  5. Fleur-Calixte, Rose Saint PhD


Utilization of hospice for end-of-life care is known to be lower among racial and ethnic minority groups than among White populations when controlling for other socioeconomic factors. Certain patient, provider, and community characteristics may influence home-hospice use. We sought to identify patient, provider, and community factors associated with home-hospice use. Our final analytic sample included 1,208,700 hospice patients who received home-hospice from 2,148 Medicare-certified hospice providers in 2016. We found that an increase in the proportion of hospice patients with a primary diagnosis of dementia decreased the odds that home-hospice was provided (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36-1.48). Patients who received hospice care from a provider with a higher proportion of dually enrolled patients were less likely to receive home-hospice (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36-1.48) and hospices located in ZIP-codes with higher proportion of Hispanic resident were less likely to provide home-hospice (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-0.99). Additional research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these associations.