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  1. Anderson, Avery M. BA, BSN, RN
  2. Happ, Mary Beth PhD, RN, FGSA, FAAN


Suicide is a public health crisis in the United States and around the world. Despite decades of research, prevention efforts have not substantially influenced suicide rates. Theoretical foundations for research are essential in building the science of suicide prevention. This article analyzes and evaluates the most recently published suicide theory based on an ideation-to-action framework, the Three-Step Theory of Suicide (3ST). This theory demonstrates significant scope and context as well as coherent content. Suggested theory improvements include enhanced clarity and directions for testability. Empirical evidence supports the merits of this theory, although further research is needed for population-specific application.