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  1. Ayasreh, Ibrahim R. PhD, RN
  2. Hayajneh, Ferial A. PhD, RN


Violence against health care providers is one of the most pressing problems faced by health care systems around the world. Because of unpredictability and acuity of emergency cases, emergency nurses are more vulnerable to workplace violence. Violence against emergency nurses is a complex and multidimensional problem that has a devastating impact on the physical, psychological, and social well-being of nurse victims. The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on manifestations, contributing factors, and consequences of workplace violence perpetrated by patients and/or their relatives against emergency nurses, in addition to behavioral responses of emergency nurse victims toward workplace violence. An integrative review was conducted by searching 3 main electronic databases: Web of Sciences, MEDLINE, and ScienceDirect. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final review process. The review identified the most common forms, contributing factors, unpleasant consequences of workplace violence, and behavioral reaction of nurse victims toward violence acts. Reporting rates of workplace violence among emergency nurses were found to be low. It is recommended to develop more effective workplace violence prevention and reporting programs.