advance care planning, COVID-19, online resources, palliative care



  1. Tark, Aluem PhD, FNP-BC, RN, CHPN
  2. Kamalumpundi, Vijayvardhan BS
  3. Song, Jiyoun PhD, AGACNP-BC, RN
  4. Chae, Sena PhD, RN
  5. Stone, Patricia W. PhD, RN, FAAN
  6. Gilbertson-White, Stephanie PhD, ARNP-BC
  7. Buck, Harleah PhD, RN, FPCN, FAHA, FAAN


Palliative and end-of-life care has been pushed to the forefront of medical care during the pandemic caused by the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). Palliative care organizations have responded to the growing demand for the rapid dissemination of research, clinical guidance, and instructions for care to clinicians, patients with COVID-19, and their caregivers by creating COVID-19 resource Web pages. Here, end users can access resources that can be updated in real time. These Web pages, however, can be variable in what resources they offer and for whom they are designed for (clinicians, patients, caregivers). Therefore, this project was conducted to consolidate these resources via summary tables of specific contents available through each Web page grouped by palliative care domains (eg, care discussion and planning, communication, symptom management, care access) and to identify the target audience. This environmental scan was conducted by compiling a comprehensive list of COVID-19 resource Web pages of palliative care organizations generated by reviewing previously published research studies and consulting with palliative care research experts. Snowballing techniques were used to identify resource Web pages not captured in the initial scan. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible Web pages for content via a form developed for the study, and Cohen [kappa] statistic was calculated to ensure interrater reliability. The final [kappa] statistic was 0.76. Of the 24 websites screened, 15 websites met our eligibility criteria. Among the eligible resource Web pages, most (n = 12, 80%) had specific target audiences and care settings, whereas the rest presented information targeted to all audiences. Although 11 Web pages offered resources that addressed all 4 domains, only 1 Web page conveyed all 12 subdomains. We recommend the use of this guide to all frontline clinicians who require guidance in clinically managing patients with COVID-19 receiving palliative care and/or end-of-life care.