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  1. Younis, Mohammad Bani PhD, RN


Critically ill patients usually experience a significant level of pain during rest or during routine care such as turning, wound care, and endotracheal suctioning. Pain assessment is the cornerstone of pain management. Adequate pain assessment and management are major responsibilities of critical care nurses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward pain assessment and management of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients who are unable to communicate verbally. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study. The study was conducted at ICUs in 5 hospitals from the north, middle, and south areas of Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire developed by Rose was used in this study. The most important finding in this study was that a large number of ICU nurses do not use assessment tools to evaluate the level of pain in patients who are unable to communicate verbally. Moreover, the nurses have inadequate knowledge about pain assessment and management. As perceived by the nurses, "restlessness" was the highest rated routine indicator of pain (25.1%), followed by "not following commands" (24%). Half of the participants (50%) answered that nurses were the persons who provide the most accurate rating of pain intensity. However, the participants showed positive attitude toward pain assessment and management.