content validity index, emergency department, fall instrument, fall risk, fall tool



  1. Hurwitz, Beth MSN, AGCNS-BC, CEN
  2. Altmiller, Gerry EdD, APRN, ACNS-BC, ANEF, FAAN


Purpose: There are many falls risk assessment tools available for inpatient use; however, few have been validated for the emergency department population. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid instrument to capture fall risk specific to that population.


Design: Using clinical expertise and evidence from the literature, the Hurwitz Fall Risk Assessment Instrument was developed. Seven clinicians with expertise in the area of fall prevention were then recruited to serve as expert content reviewers.


Methods: The content validity index was used to determine consensus of relevance for specific items and the overall scale.


Results: Two rounds of rigorous review yielded a scale content validity index universal agreement calculation of 1, indicating that all items were evaluated as relevant and appropriate for inclusion in an instrument designed to address the unique attributes of emergency department patients.


Conclusions: This study establishes scale content validation for the Hurwitz Fall Risk Assessment Instrument for use in the emergency department population.