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Bottle feeding, breast feeding, feeding behavior, infant, neonate, newborn, patient-reported outcome measures, surveys and questionnaires



  1. Pados, Britt Frisk PhD, RN, NNP-BC, FAHA (Assistant Professor)


Background: The Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool-Mixed Breastfeeding and Bottle-feeding (NeoEAT-Mixed Feeding) is a parent-report assessment of symptoms of problematic feeding in infants who are feeding by both breast and bottle.


Purpose: To establish reference values for the NeoEAT-Mixed Feeding and evaluate factors that contribute to symptoms of problematic feeding in healthy, full-term infants.


Methods: Parents of 409 infants less than 7 months old completed an online survey. Median and percentile scores are presented for infants aged 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, and 6-7 months old.


Results: Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool-Mixed Feeding total score and scores for the Gastrointestinal Tract Function and Energy & Physiologic Stability subscales decreased with increasing infant age. Infant Regulation and Feeding Flexibility subscale scores remained stable over time, whereas Sensory Responsiveness subscale scores increased with increasing infant age. Infants with more gastrointestinal symptoms had higher NeoEAT-Mixed Feeding total scores.


Implications for practice: The reported reference values may be used to identify infants in need of further assessment, referral, and intervention. In healthy, full-term infants with concurrent gastrointestinal symptoms and problematic feeding, interventions targeted at gastrointestinal symptoms may help to improve symptoms of problematic feeding as well.