1. Kavanagh, Alethea Y. PT, BSc (Physiotherapy)(MPhil)


Background and Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent functional maintenance initiatives (MFMIs) on functional outcomes and adverse events associated with functional decline among acutely hospitalized older adults.


Data Sources: Studies were sourced from OVID Medline, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and PEDro databases from inception to April 15, 2020, and their bibliographies.


Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials were included if they investigated multicomponent interventions comprising more than one nonpharmacological intervention targeting physical functional decline and another shared risk factor for geriatric syndromes in acutely hospitalized medical or nonelective surgical patients 65 years and older.


Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently assessed for eligibility, extracted data, and conducted risk of bias assessments.


Data Synthesis: Eight studies involving 5534 patients were included. Multicomponent functional maintenance initiatives did not appear to confer significant effects on functional status, length of stay, or 30-day hospital readmissions; however, clinical heterogeneity limited meta-analysis for some specific functional outcomes. Patients who did not receive MFMIs were more likely to be discharged to a nursing staff facility (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.90). No effect of MFMI on all-cause mortality was observed, and adverse events were rare and unlikely attributed to nonpharmacological interventions.


Conclusions: Data from a small number of studies suggest MFMIs reduce the likelihood of discharge to a nursing staff facility in acutely hospitalized older adults; however, this effect may not be driven via improvements in physical function. Standardized evaluation methods to determine MFMI effectiveness appear indicated to assist decision-making regarding their implementation in clinical practice.