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Cannabis Dependence, Frequency of Cannabis Use, Mental Health, Moderators, Risk Factors



  1. Binkowska, Alicja Anna MA
  2. Ruban, Anastasia MA
  3. Gogolewska, Mariszka MA
  4. Sawicz, Piotr MA
  5. Rychlewski, Leszek PhD
  6. Brzezicka, Aneta PhD


Objectives: Although frequency of cannabis use is considered to be the strongest risk factor for developing cannabis dependence, only up to half of daily users become dependent. In this study, we explored an array of risk factors and moderators of cannabis dependence symptoms from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition endorsed by participants.


Methods: A sample of 1,635 cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use. Multiple linear regression with a backward elimination method was employed to identify predictors of cannabis dependence symptoms. After that, a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to test the predictive validity of the interactions between frequency of cannabis use and other predictors.


Results: Frequency of cannabis use appeared to be the strongest predictor of developing cannabis dependence symptoms; other significant predictors of cannabis dependence symptoms were substance-dependency-related treatment seeking, mental health problems in the family and pattern of substance use. Duration of cannabis use, relationship status, and drug use history in the family were identified as significant moderators of the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and the number of cannabis dependence symptoms.


Conclusions: This study confirms that the frequency of cannabis use is the strongest predictor of cannabis dependence symptoms but this relationship is significantly moderated by three abovementioned factors.