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Aging in older adults contributes to possible declines in physical fitness, such as loss of muscle mass and fibers, as well as decreases in muscle strength, endurance, and movement. The trend of inactive and sedentary lifestyle also increases in aging process, leading to noncommunicable diseases, functional changes, and immobility, with higher dependency and increased mortality risk. To extend the independent period without the need for nursing care in older people, it is essential to sustain a healthy lifestyle; of which, exercise and physical activity are considered to play a particularly important role. It is necessary to widely disseminate information regarding the significance of exercise and physical activity as cost-effective interventions to the general public as well as health care professionals.


Geriatric rehabilitation research, including interventions designed to help reduce the prevalence of deterioration caused by old age, is vital to increase our scientific knowledge to assist in making clinical decisions. We are pleased to present the May issue of the Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, titled "Exercise and Physical Activity in Older Adults." This issue contains many compelling articles, most strongly supported by evidence-based studies, regarding components of geriatric rehabilitation that are vital to provide the best care and outcomes for older adults. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation is pleased and honored to have these article submissions. This issue is devoted to the gamut of informative and applicable research as well as systematic review and meta-analysis articles that address the main theme. Here is a sneak peek of some of the topics addressed in this issue.


* A discussion paper described how to preserve and improve skeletal muscle function, the reasons why exercise is necessary for healthy longevity in older adults, and the concepts related to its implementation.


* Walking improved aerobic endurance, lower body strength, static balance, agility, and dynamic balance, and it could be promoted to improve the physical function of older adults.


* Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation shortened the recovery time of physical exercise capacity, improved some of respiratory functions, and may benefit older patients after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.


* A multidomain health promotion (MDHP) program performed at least 1 hour per week for community-dwelling older adults was promising in improving balance and reducing the risk of falls, especially for the young-old and old-old older adults.


* Chair-based dance has been shown to be a nonpharmacological intervention that has a positive impact on the overall psychological well-being among Chinese older people in residential care.


* Based on the effective strategies to promote changes in exercise behaviors identified in the "Transtheoretical Model" (TTM), a new intervention model of community-based physical fitness exercise can be introduced to effectively improve exercise self-efficacy of older adults, increase the amount of physical activity, raise the exercise adherence of older adults, and achieve the effect of changing exercise behaviors.


* A 24-week Physically Active Lifestyle Modification (PALM) program, led by occupational therapists, improved Taiwanese older adults' quality of life in both physical and mental health.


* The lifestyle modification for the elderly (LiME) program was a rarely seen short-term (3 months) lifestyle intervention program that demonstrated positive outcomes on physical function, cognition, and quality of life among community-dwelling older adults.


* Physical activity has many beneficial effects on health and potentially it may affect homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) through its effect on changing body composition, and racial/ethnic differences were identified.


We would like to thank these authors who have spent thousands of hours to the tremendous rehabilitation research presented in this issue. Great appreciation also goes to those older adults who gave their consents and participated in these studies. This issue would not have been possible without the great support of the Editorial Board members, and we would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of them.


We are certain that this special issue will be followed by many others, reporting new interventions in the geriatric rehabilitation field. We hope that this fine collection of articles will be a valuable resource for Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation readers and will stimulate further research into the vibrant area of geriatric rehabilitation.


-Kuei-Min Chen, PhD, RN, FAAN


Issue Editor