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Keywords

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), Factor V Leiden (FVL), Hereditary thrombophilia (HT), Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), Pregnancy, Pulmonary embolism (PE), Surgery, Trauma, Venous thromboembolism (VTE)

 

Authors

  1. Morrow, Morgan DNP, AG-ACNP-BC, APRN, RNFA
  2. Lynch-Smith, Donna DNP, ACNP-BC, APRN, NE-BC, CNL

Abstract

Background: Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a hereditary thrombophilia, which causes the blood to be more hypercoagulable; in essence, the blood tends to clot more easily, especially under certain circumstances. It is the most common genetic mutation, causing thrombophilia in patients of white background. Patients that have FVL are at a higher risk to develop venous thromboembolism (VTE) after surgery and trauma.

 

Objective: The purpose of this review is to identify FVL as a risk factor, which may impede optimum acute cardiopulmonary management which may contribute to a longer length of stay (LOS) in the hospital.

 

Methods: This article is a systematic review of the literature involving research printed in peer-reviewed journals from 2015 to 2018. The University of Tennessee Health Science Center online library, PubMed, and Google Scholar were used for the literature search.

 

Results: The results of this study determined that although FVL is in fact a risk factor, which may impede optimum acute cardiopulmonary management which may contribute to a longer LOS, management of VTE is no different for a person with FVL compared with those without FVL.

 

Conclusion: Factor V Leiden is a risk factor for the development of VTE, specifically deep vein thrombosis, in surgical, trauma, pregnant, and hormone replacement therapy patients, thus increasing LOS and recurrence of such events. Regardless of FVL status, management of VTE should be initiated promptly and discontinued when appropriate.