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  1. Blakeman, John R. PhD, RN, PCCN-K
  2. Fillman, Valentina M. PhD, RN


Accurately measuring and reporting the demographic characteristics of research participants are imperative to provide consumers of research with an understanding of who was included in a study. While researchers often, incorrectly, use the variables sex and gender interchangeably, these 2 variables are different. We conducted a content analysis of 239 randomly selected research articles, with the purpose of describing how researchers have used sex and gender in studies published in nursing journals and identifying opportunities for improved clarity and precision in measuring these 2 variables. We found that significant improvement is needed in the way these variables are used/reported.