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collaborative research utilization model, complementary pain management, tailored teaching



  1. Tracy, Susanne
  2. Dufault, Marlene
  3. Kogut, Stephen
  4. Martin, Valerie
  5. Rossi, Susan
  6. Willey-Temkin, Cynthia


Background: The research-to-practice gap is at the heart of the problem in the underuse of nondrug complementary methods to manage postoperative pain.


Purpose: To show how the six steps of the Collaborative Research Utilization (CRU) model can be used to translate research into practice, using an example of nondrug pain management protocols.


Methods: The CRU model was used to translate empirically tested nondrug interventions for surgical pain management enhancement into cost-effective, easy-to-use, best-practice nursing interventions, using tailored patient teaching.


Results: The preliminary findings of the substudy in the context of the CRU model are reported.


Discussion: The CRU model was successful in changing patients' knowledge, attitudes, and use of nondrug interventions for pain management. Further research is needed in heterogeneous populations. Organization receptivity to research and a well-integrated computerized documentation system for cueing clinicians' pain management practices are key for effectiveness of change.