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angiography coronary, angioplasty, bleeding, early mobilization, transluminal percutaneous coronary



  1. Norgaard, Marianne Wetendorff PhD, RN
  2. Faerch, Jane MSc, RN
  3. Joshi, Francis R. MD, PhD, FRCP
  4. Hofsten, Dan E. MD, PhD
  5. Engstrom, Thomas MD, PhD, DMSc
  6. Kelbaek, Henning MD, DMSc


Background: Coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are performed via the femoral or radial arteries. In patients examined via transfemoral access, closure devices facilitate hemostasis, but it is unknown whether it is safe to mobilize these patients immediately and how acceptable this may be in terms of patient comfort.


Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate bleeding complications in patients mobilized immediately after transfemoral CAG or PCI compared with patients on bed rest (BR) for 2 hours after the procedure and, furthermore, to investigate patient comfort in relation to mobilization and BR.


Methods: SAMOVAR was a noninferiority trial with patients randomized to immediate mobilization (IM) or 2 hours of BR after transfemoral CAG or PCI and use of the AngioSeal as a closure device and reversal of heparin effect. The primary end point was development of hematoma greater than 5 cm, pseudoaneurysm, or bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Secondary end points were oozing from the puncture site, small hematoma, and patient comfort.


Results: Of 2027 patients (IM, 1010; BR, 1017), 40% underwent PCI. The primary outcome was recorded in 0.7% patients randomized to IM versus 0.5% in BR (P = .58). There was no difference in the incidence of small hematoma, whereas persistent oozing was seen slightly more often after IM compared with BR (12% vs 9%, P = .04). Patients mobilized immediately reported less back pain and micturition problems (P < .001).


Conclusions: In patients who had CAG and PCI performed through transfemoral access, reversal of anticoagulation and use of closure devices allowed IM with low rates of complications and improved patient comfort.