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Adults, Heart failure, Motivational interviewing, Secondary analysis, Self-care



  1. Stawnychy, Michael A. PhD, CRNP
  2. Zeffiro, Valentina PhD, RN
  3. Iovino, Paolo MSN, RN
  4. Vellone, Ercole PhD, RN, FAAN, FESC
  5. Riegel, Barbara PhD, RN, FPCNA, FAHA, FAAN


Background: Motivational interviewing (MI) improves heart failure (HF) self-care for most yet fails to work for some patients. Identifying patients less likely to benefit from MI would save time in identifying a more suitable treatment for these patients.


Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of adults with HF less likely to clinically improve self-care after MI.


Methods: This was a secondary intervention group analysis (n = 230) of MOTIVATional intErviewing to improve self-care in Heart Failure patients (MOTIVATE-HF), a trial evaluating MI in improving HF self-care maintenance and management. Self-care was measured with the Self-care of Heart Failure Index v. 6.2 at baseline and 3 months from enrollment. Participants were dichotomized into MI nonresponder (standardized score change <8 points) or MI responder (score change >=8 points). Logistic regression, adjusted for group differences, identified determinants of nonresponse (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]).


Results: Significant risk factors for self-care maintenance nonresponse 3 months after the intervention were nonischemic HF (2.58 [1.33-5.00], P = .005) and taking fewer medications (0.83 [0.74-0.93], P = .001). These variables explained 29.6% of the variance in HF self-care maintenance. Risk factors for self-care management nonresponse were living alone (4.33 [1.25-14.95], P = .021) and higher baseline self-care management (1.06 [1.02-1.09], P < .001), explaining 35% of the variance in HF self-care management.


Conclusions: Motivational interviewing may be less beneficial in patients with nonischemic HF and taking fewer medications. Patients with HF living alone with relatively better self-care management may be at risk for MI treatment failure. Identifying characteristics of nonresponders to MI in HF contributes to clinical decision making and personalized interventions.