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anxiety, COVID-19, faith, IES-R, nursing education, nursing students, pandemic, PTSD, spirituality, stress



  1. Joseph, Rachel A.
  2. Turner, Tracey
  3. Lee, Chansoon
  4. Akers, Shanna W.
  5. Whorley, Elizabeth
  6. Goodrich, Cindy


ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic rapidly transformed nursing education, creating multiple stressors for students. The researchers in this study examined how undergraduate and graduate nursing students at a faith-based university perceived the impact of COVID-19. A multiple linear regression model explored the effect of 17 variables on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) scores. Anxiety level, quality of sleep, and perceived health demonstrated a statistically significant influence on IES-R scores; 27% of students had IES-R scores above 33, indicating high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Strategies to help address student stress and anxiety are discussed.