Transgender, gender diverse, advanced practice education, family nurse practitioner



  1. Klotzbaugh, Ralph FNP-BC, PhD
  2. Hopwood, Ruben PhD, MDiv


Background: Literature has recognized deficient knowledge of transgender or gender diverse (TGD) patient needs that can negatively affect health care. Prior research on education has shown little progress responsive to TGD health care needs from nursing. Findings from this demonstrate some improvement, however slight. This study examined the education of family nurse practitioners (FNPs) providing care to TGD patients.


Purpose: The purposes of this study were to describe the relationship between location of practice and TGD patient care and to identify emerging themes related to the care of TGD individuals.


Methods: Surveys were sent to 3,500 FNPs. Surveys were completed by 356.


Results: No significant results were found between location of practice and TGD patient care or between location of education and TGD curricular inclusion. Statistical significance was found between inclusion of TGD content and participants' year of graduation. Those graduating in or after 2011 were more likely to report receiving content. Themes emerged in four areas related to practice area, role, location, and education. This study highlights inadequacy of curricular inclusion of TGD health needs. Findings underscored ways FNPs sourced best practices to provide health care to TGD people.


Implications for Clinical Practice: These findings provide additional support for the need to educate FNPs to reduce barriers for TGD persons in accessing affirming health care.