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advance care planning, aged, housing, middle aged, qualitative research, social class, social determinants of health



  1. Kimpel, Christine C. MA
  2. Jones, Abigail C. MEd
  3. Ratcliff, Amy C. DNP
  4. Maxwell, Cathy A. PhD


This preliminary qualitative study aimed to explore affordable housing specialists' perceptions of challenges and patterns of advance care planning behaviors among low-income older residents in affordable housing. Advance care planning rates among such residents are disproportionally lower than higher-income older adults. Individual telephone interviews were conducted with affordable housing specialists in a major urban area in the Southeastern United States (N = 5). Using thematic content analysis, 2 independent coders synthesized the 2 coding sets into a single codebook that was iteratively and individually reapplied to the transcripts. The Ecological Model of Active Living, a model that embeds individual behavior within a physical and social environment, was used to categorize prominent codes to visualize relationships among codes and create a cohesive, ecological picture of planning behavior in this population. Four themes emerged from the data and were plotted in an adapted ecological model. Residents' ongoing struggles despite obtaining housing prevent self-initiation and maintenance of advance care planning. Housing specialists possess the expertise and empathy to guide change efforts and provide advance care planning, but aid is required to ensure adequate resources to prevent role conflict and burnout. Recommendations for interprofessional collaboration, practice, policy, and research are discussed.