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Anxiety, Coronary heart disease, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Jordan



  1. Ashour, Ala PhD, RN
  2. Al-Rawashdeh, Sami PhD, RN
  3. Tanash, Mu'ath PhD, RN
  4. Al-Smadi, Ahmed PhD, RN
  5. Alshraifeen, Ali PhD, RN
  6. Shajrawi, Abedalmajeed PhD, RN


Background: Anxiety is a predictor of a bad prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. Patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reported high levels of anxiety, yet little is known about changes in anxiety levels after this procedure.


Objective: The aim of this study was to examine changes in anxiety levels of patients undergoing PCI and identify differences in anxiety levels based on patients' demographics and clinical details.


Methods: A convenience sample of patients undergoing first-time elective PCI (N = 165) completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale at baseline (discharge time) and 6 months later. Paired samples t test was used to assess the changes in anxiety levels. The [chi]2 test was used to examine the pattern of changes between the 2 time points. Patients did not have access to cardiac rehabilitation.


Results: Six months after PCI, the anxiety level scores decreased significantly; mean scores for the baseline versus follow-up were 10.84 +/- 5.98 versus 4.29 +/- 6.02, respectively (P = .001). Only 18.2% of the patients had normal levels of anxiety at the baseline compared with 71.5% 6 months later. History of hospitalization after PCI, being a smoker, younger age, and low level of education were associated with higher levels of anxiety at follow-up.


Conclusions: Although anxiety levels were reduced 6 months after PCI, assessing patients' anxiety levels and implementing psychoeducational interventions at follow-up should be incorporated to optimize the care of PCI patients, particularly for those who are younger, who are smokers, or with a low educational level.