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  1. Gozacan Karabulut, Demet PhD, PT
  2. Sertel, Meral PhD, PT
  3. Tutun Yumin, Eylem PhD, PT
  4. Abit Kocaman, Ayse PhD, PT
  5. Tarsuslu, Tulay PhD, PT


Objectives: The present research aimed to identify the difference between physical activity, physical performance, balance, fall risk, and exercise barriers in frail and nonfrail older adults.


Methods: One hundred nineteen voluntary individuals older than 65 years and living in K[latin dotless i]r[latin dotless i]kkale were enrolled in the research. The Clinical Frailty Scale was employed to evaluate the frailty level of the individuals included in the study. In line with the data obtained after the evaluation, individuals were separated into 2 groups as frail and nonfrail individuals. Exercise barriers were evaluated with the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS), physical activity level was evaluated with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), lower extremity physical performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test, and fall risk was assessed with the Self-Rated Fall Risk Questionnaire (FRQ).


Results: Ninety-three of the individuals enrolled in the study were found to be nonfrail and 26 to be frail older adults. The mean age of the individuals in the nonfrail group was 70.36 +/- 6.10 years, and the mean age of the individuals in the frail group was 76.53 +/- 7.37 years. In the statistical analysis, the difference was revealed between the groups in terms of the exercise barriers subscore, EBBS total score, PASE leisure activity score, PASE total score, FRQ total score, and SPPB total result (P < .05). In the correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the frailty scale score and SPPB and a positive correlation between the frailty scale score and FRQ in nonfrail older adults (P < .05). However, there was a positive correlation between the frailty scale score and exercise barriers subscore, EBBS and FRQ total scores, and a negative correlation between the PASE leisure activities, work activities and PASE total score, and SPPB score in frail individuals (P < .05).


Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the physical activity levels of frail older adults were poorer, they had a higher fall risk, and their activity performance, including the lower extremity, was poorer than that of nonfrail older adults.