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  1. Bastamizad, Nasrin MSc
  2. Abbasi, Parvin PhD
  3. Salari, Nader PhD
  4. Jalali, Rostam PhD


Cholecystitis treated by laparoscopy results in patients experiencing shoulder pain and nausea. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of incentive spirometry and deep breathing exercises on the level of shoulder pain and nausea following laparoscopy. In this clinical trial, 105 patients were enrolled into three groups: use of incentive spirometry, deep breathing exercises, and control. Data were collected using a checklist and a visual analog scale and analyzed through the [chi]2, the Kruskal-Wallis, the Friedman, and the paired t test by SPSS Version 25. In the deep breathing exercise, incentive spirometry, and control groups, mean pain scores immediately after surgery but within 24 hours following the intervention were 3.8, 2.6, and 4.4, respectively. The mean score of severity of nausea for patients in the deep breathing exercise and incentive spirometry groups showed a significant difference immediately after the procedure, as well as at 12 and 24 hours post-intervention. Breathing exercises and incentive spirometry can be effective in reducing pain and nausea in patients undergoing cholecystectomy through laparoscopy. Because of the effectiveness of the two methods, nurses can use incentive spirometery and deep breathing exercises to diminish patients' pain post-cholecystectomy.