1. Martinez, Sydney A. PhD
  2. Hasan, Afsheen MPH
  3. Boeckman, Lindsay M. MS
  4. Beebe, Laura A. PhD


Context: Diabetes and cigarette smoking are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who smoke are at an increased risk of smoking- and diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.


Objective: We examined utilization patterns, satisfaction, and tobacco cessation outcomes among persons with T2D to determine whether the Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline is an equally effective intervention for tobacco users with T2D compared with those without diabetes.


Design: This study was a retrospective cohort design using registration and follow-up data from a state tobacco quitline.


Setting: We examined Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data from July 2015 to June 2021 to compare Helpline utilization among individuals who self-reported a previous diagnosis of T2D compared with those not reporting a diagnosis of diabetes.


Participants: Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registrants enrolled in a call program, either the single- or multiple-call program, who reported diabetes status at baseline. We compared tobacco use history, program enrollment, and services received for individuals self-reporting T2D with those without diabetes.


Main Outcome Measures: We compared 30-day point-prevalence abstinence at 7 months and evaluated program satisfaction.


Results: Registrants with T2D were more likely to receive a higher intensity of services including the number of coaching calls and the amount of nicotine replacement therapy. At 7-month follow-up, 32.3% of registrants with T2D and 35.1% of those without diabetes reported 30-day point-prevalence abstinence, but the differences were not statistically significant.


Conclusions: While findings demonstrate similar effectiveness, more research is needed to better understand why the prevalence of tobacco use remains high among individuals with T2D and how to improve cessation in this population.