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  1. Beck, Cheryl Tatano DNSc, CNM, FAAN


Reported prevalence rates of elevated postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant and refugee women range from 24% to 82%. A third modification of Teetering on the Edge, a grounded theory of postpartum depression, was conducted to extend this midrange theory to address immigrant and refugee women. Data from 13 qualitative studies that specifically focused on this vulnerable population were included in this modification. Two categories were added to the third stage of Teetering on the Edge: Barriers to Sources of Support and Battling Self and Culture. These new categories shed light on the struggles of immigrant and refugee mothers.