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  1. Zhang, Zhihong MS, RN
  2. Stein, Karen F. PhD, RN
  3. Norton, Sally A. PhD, RN
  4. Flannery, Marie A. PhD, RN


Kumpfer's resilience framework (KRF) was initially developed from evidence on resilience and its predictors among at-risk youth. This framework has been expanded to guide resilience research in diverse populations facing a variety of stressors. However, KRF's strengths and weaknesses have not been evaluated since its publication. Guided by Walker and Avant's method, an analysis of KRF was conducted drawn from 41 publications. A revised KRF diagram was proposed on the basis of the analysis to improve clarity, consistency, logical structure, and parsimony in the diagram of KRF. Overall, KRF provides a useful, generalizable, and testable theoretical framework for future resilience research.