1. Brewer, Katherine C. PhD, MSN, RN
  2. Horning, Melanie A. PhD, RN
  3. Walker, Mark S. PhD, RN, CCRN, CNE
  4. Ness, Michelle M. PhD, MSN, RN, CNE


AIM: This analysis seeks to identify the effect of family presence and visitation during COVID-19 pandemic among nurses and nurse leaders.


BACKGROUND: Visitation restrictions were widespread during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic and were a potential source of distress for nurses. Few studies have examined sources of distress, such as visitation restrictions, among nurse leaders and non-nurse leaders.


METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed using a national survey of nurses conducted by the American Nurses Foundation.


RESULTS: More nurse leaders than nonleaders reported that nurses were involved in policy decisions/discussions and that visitation restrictions created additional burdens. There was similar level of agreement among nurse leaders and nonleaders that restrictions were not in the best interest of the patients. Many nurses reported the restrictions impacted their own well-being.


CONCLUSION: Visitation restrictions were a likely source of distress. Improvements to communication, planning, and transparency should be considered in preparation for future emergencies that may require visitation restrictions.