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Dependence, Smoking, Waterpipe



  1. Rayan, Ahmad RN, CNS, PhD
  2. Eshah, Nidal F. RN, CNS, PhD
  3. Froelicher, Erika S. RN, PhD, FAAN


Abstract: The current study targeted a sample of waterpipe (WP) exclusive smokers to identify the levels and predictors of dependence on this smoking pattern and to examine the relationship between WP smoking (WPS) dependence and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional research design was employed with a community sample of 270 subjects who are currently WP exclusive smokers. Assessment of WPS dependence and depressive symptoms was performed using self-report measures. About 62.6% of the subjects were WPS dependent. The unique significant predictors of WPS dependence were age, depression levels, age of starting WPS, duration of WPS, income, smoking WP daily, the belief of being attracted to WPS, and the desire to stop WPS. These predictors explained 35% of the variance in WPS dependence. WPS dependence was associated with increased depressive symptoms. Although few studies have been conducted, the WPS dependence prevalence appears to be alarmingly high among WP exclusive smokers. Factors associated with WPS dependence provide useful information that can be used to tailor WP prevention interventions.